Facial nerve segment
Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively.
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Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review
Facial Nerve Anatomy and Clinical Applications - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf
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Branchial motor innervation to muscles of facial expression including orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, zygomaticus major, levator anguli oris, risorius, depressor anguli oris, mentalis, buccinator, frontalis, occipitalis, corrugator supercilii, and platysma , stapedius, stylohyoid, and posterior belly of digastric. Visceral motor parasympathetic innervation to lacrimal gland via greater superficial petrosal nerve; GSPN , oral and nasal mucosa via GSPN , and submandibular and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. Somatic sensory from external auditory meatus, auricle and retroauricular area.
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches see facial nerve branches mnemonic , it has taste and parasympathetic fibers that relay in a complex manner. The facial nerve is the only cranial nerve that may show normal post-contrast enhancement, although this applies only to the labyrinthine segment up to the stylomastoid foramen.
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